Jump to content

Welcome to canucks.com Vancouver Canucks homepage

Photo

Greyhound Bus Beheader Vince Li Allowed Off Institute Grounds Already


This topic has been archived. This means that you cannot reply to this topic.
77 replies to this topic

#61 D-Money

D-Money

    Canucks Franchise Player

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 14,011 posts
  • Joined: 14-February 06

Posted 22 May 2012 - 03:42 PM

Funny - my in-laws take the bus regularly between Calgary and Golden, and they are checked most of the time. Guess it depends on the station.

Security was a bit overboard immediately after the incident, so it's probably been relaxed a lot since then.

PBF131-Lord_Gloom.jpg?1361362669


#62 Tokasmoka

Tokasmoka

    Comets Regular

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 412 posts
  • Joined: 29-January 11

Posted 22 May 2012 - 04:32 PM

Mental health issues or not, he deserves to die and I hope it happens sooner or later. You would have a different view with this guy if he killed someone you knew so stop sounding like his defense attourney. People like this are lost causes so why waste resources on them?

#63 cadillaccts

cadillaccts

    Canucks Rookie

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 1,842 posts
  • Joined: 10-October 07

Posted 22 May 2012 - 04:40 PM

Yeah, I just dont see this guy ever being a truly productive member of society. You can't behead somebody and start eating their body and ever hope to expect people to forget that. Regardless of his mental health, I truly believe this is an act that deserves nothing short of the death penalty.

#64 The Brahma Bull

The Brahma Bull

    Canucks All-Star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 17,224 posts
  • Joined: 17-March 08

Posted 22 May 2012 - 04:47 PM

Mental health issues or not, he deserves to die and I hope it happens sooner or later. You would have a different view with this guy if he killed someone you knew so stop sounding like his defense attourney. People like this are lost causes so why waste resources on them?


If he killed one of my family members, I'd be very sad. I wouldn't wish him to die though. If a murderer purposefully attacked a family member, i'd be very angry, but that is not the case here. This man had no idea what he was doing. I feel so badly for him. It is too bad he wasn't on medication before any of this happened. Out of respect for the victim's family and the safety of himself/others, I wouldn't mind him being in an institution for the rest of his life.

I have compassion for someone whose mind is a living hell. At the time, this man was not in touch with reality. Hogging up resources? I'd rather deal with the scumbag murderers/pedos that do things deliberately. Many people with schizophrenia are able to lead semi-ok lives if they take their meds regularly, but some aren't.

Edited by The Brahma Bull, 22 May 2012 - 04:49 PM.



#65 Bubaloo

Bubaloo

    K-Wing Star

  • Members
  • PipPipPip
  • 62 posts
  • Joined: 22-April 11

Posted 22 May 2012 - 04:58 PM

We should ask what the victim thinks of his killer getting these privileges... Oh wait.
I don't give a frack If ur crazy or not. U took someone's life. Period. there is no second chance. This stupid country sometimes

#66 Spotted Zebra

Spotted Zebra

    Canucks Regular

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 2,271 posts
  • Joined: 07-January 07

Posted 22 May 2012 - 05:07 PM

We should ask what the victim thinks of his killer getting these privileges... Oh wait.
I don't give a frack If ur crazy or not. U took someone's life. Period. there is no second chance. This stupid country sometimes

so lets just say there's a new street drug which you see whatever you're most afraid of. Whether it's a certain individual, animal..whatever.

so you go to the bar and some chick sips this in your drink and everyone you see is that thing you're afraid of. If you kill someone UTI of the drug you deserve to die?
Posted Image
Thanks Vintage Canuck!

#67 Scottish⑦Canuck

Scottish⑦Canuck

    Canucks First-Line

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 5,943 posts
  • Joined: 04-March 07

Posted 22 May 2012 - 05:08 PM

This is a difficult one. I would certainly be wary of someone like that being allowed out around my area, even with supervision. But at the same time I understand how serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia can be. The man is going to have to live with what he's done for the rest of his life and that's got to hurt/ have a serious effect on him.

Is it worth the risk? It's a really tough one.

Mental health issues or not, he deserves to die and I hope it happens sooner or later. You would have a different view with this guy if he killed someone you knew so stop sounding like his defense attourney. People like this are lost causes so why waste resources on them?


Care to go into detail? How do you know he's a lost cause and can't be treated effectively?

#68 Jaimito

Jaimito

    Canucks Hall-of-Famer

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 21,972 posts
  • Joined: 05-February 03

Posted 22 May 2012 - 05:11 PM

there's no cure for that. lock him up
Posted Image

#69 Tokasmoka

Tokasmoka

    Comets Regular

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPip
  • 412 posts
  • Joined: 29-January 11

Posted 22 May 2012 - 05:30 PM

This is a difficult one. I would certainly be wary of someone like that being allowed out around my area, even with supervision. But at the same time I understand how serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia can be. The man is going to have to live with what he's done for the rest of his life and that's got to hurt/ have a serious effect on him.

Is it worth the risk? It's a really tough one.



Care to go into detail? How do you know he's a lost cause and can't be treated effectively?


What detail do you need? The part about him being evil or the part about him being a lost cause and therefore not one dollar should be spent trying to make him become one with society?If you disagree with what i say then by all mean why don't you try and help him, spend some time with him alone in a room with no one else within a helps reach and use your compassion to heal him. Otherwise don't be a nimby hypocrite. Because we both know if that was your son, dad, brother or friend that got killed you would be having nightmares daily about the thought of this evil monster on the same planet as you. And that legal system you think is there to protect you ends up being nothing more then a slap in the face. So if you think you can help him then do it, otherwise by not doing anything you are assuming he is a lost cause. Thats my point, get it?

#70 Scottish⑦Canuck

Scottish⑦Canuck

    Canucks First-Line

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 5,943 posts
  • Joined: 04-March 07

Posted 22 May 2012 - 06:15 PM

What detail do you need? The part about him being evil or the part about him being a lost cause and therefore not one dollar should be spent trying to make him become one with society?If you disagree with what i say then by all mean why don't you try and help him, spend some time with him alone in a room with no one else within a helps reach and use your compassion to heal him. Otherwise don't be a nimby hypocrite. Because we both know if that was your son, dad, brother or friend that got killed you would be having nightmares daily about the thought of this evil monster on the same planet as you. And that legal system you think is there to protect you ends up being nothing more then a slap in the face. So if you think you can help him then do it, otherwise by not doing anything you are assuming he is a lost cause. Thats my point, get it?


I do understand the gist of your post, but I'm having issues with some of it.

The part about him being evil


Ok, this annoys me a little. Yes, the guy commited an evil act. There's no doubting that. Disgusting. But if he was suffering from schizophrenia, which I'm assuming was pretty severe, then you can't really say with certainty that it was him commiting those acts. The comment suggests to me that you don't have a proper understanding of how severe the illness can be. At the end of the day this man was very sick and likely had no idea what he was doing.

or the part about him being a lost cause


... That's what I asked you to explain. How do you know he's a lost cause and can't be treated? You never answered my question.

If you disagree with what i say then by all mean why don't you try and help him, spend some time with him alone in a room with no one else within a helps reach and use your compassion to heal him.


I'll leave that to the medical professionals. It's their job to decide the best forms of treatment for him as well as assessing the risk he poses towards society. Not sure where your ideas of healing him via compassion are coming from... that's not how it works. Again suggesting that you don't know what you're talking about.

Otherwise don't be a nimby hypocrite. Because we both know if that was your son, dad, brother or friend that got killed you would be having nightmares daily about the thought of this evil monster on the same planet as you.


Where was I being a "nimby hypocrite"? I admitted that I'd be wary of someone like that being allowed to roam free in my neighbourhood, so I understand the concerns that people have. Did you actually read my post? And of course I'd be upset if the victim were a loved one of mine. That goes without saying. But do I blame the man? Or the illness that possessed him to commit such a crime? That's why I'm saying that it's a difficult subject to address and is definitely open to debate.

So if you think you can help him then do it, otherwise by not doing anything you are assuming he is a lost cause. Thats my point, get it?


No, not really.

Edited by Scottish⑦Canuck, 22 May 2012 - 06:17 PM.


#71 Dellins

Dellins

    Canucks Regular

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 2,708 posts
  • Joined: 14-April 09

Posted 22 May 2012 - 07:42 PM

ITT: Melodramatic knuckledraggers.

#72 Canuckerbird

Canuckerbird

    Canucks Rookie

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 1,784 posts
  • Joined: 27-June 06

Posted 23 May 2012 - 12:00 AM

What detail do you need? The part about him being evil or the part about him being a lost cause and therefore not one dollar should be spent trying to make him become one with society?If you disagree with what i say then by all mean why don't you try and help him, spend some time with him alone in a room with no one else within a helps reach and use your compassion to heal him. Otherwise don't be a nimby hypocrite. Because we both know if that was your son, dad, brother or friend that got killed you would be having nightmares daily about the thought of this evil monster on the same planet as you. And that legal system you think is there to protect you ends up being nothing more then a slap in the face. So if you think you can help him then do it, otherwise by not doing anything you are assuming he is a lost cause. Thats my point, get it?


Taken all together, this post, along with your earlier foray into irrationality, is just plain ignorant.

Edited by Canuckerbird, 23 May 2012 - 01:35 AM.

My friend asked me if I wanted a frozen banana. I said "No. But I do want a normal banana later, so...ya."- The Late Mitch Hedberg

Go Canucks GO

#73 Heretic

Heretic

    Canucks All-Star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 18,559 posts
  • Joined: 08-April 07

Posted 23 May 2012 - 07:39 AM

What detail do you need? The part about him being evil or the part about him being a lost cause and therefore not one dollar should be spent trying to make him become one with society?If you disagree with what i say then by all mean why don't you try and help him, spend some time with him alone in a room with no one else within a helps reach and use your compassion to heal him. Otherwise don't be a nimby hypocrite. Because we both know if that was your son, dad, brother or friend that got killed you would be having nightmares daily about the thought of this evil monster on the same planet as you. And that legal system you think is there to protect you ends up being nothing more then a slap in the face. So if you think you can help him then do it, otherwise by not doing anything you are assuming he is a lost cause. Thats my point, get it?


This sounds like a capital punishment discussion.

Okay - so what kind of crime deserves the death penalty?

McCoy: We were speculating. Is God really out there?
Kirk: Maybe he's not out there, Bones. Maybe he's right here. [points to his heart]

 

cdc-unavailable.jpg


#74 MillerGenuineDraft

MillerGenuineDraft

    Canucks Third-Line

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 3,821 posts
  • Joined: 28-December 07

Posted 23 May 2012 - 08:53 AM

You have to understand that Canada is all for rehabilitation. If there's hope for him to get better, there's major potential to lead a normal life.
MILLERGENUINEDRAFT

#75 key2thecup

key2thecup

    Canucks First-Line

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 5,098 posts
  • Joined: 28-November 07

Posted 23 May 2012 - 11:06 AM

Victim’s mother campaigns for reform as Vince Li interview released



In July, 2008, Vince Li beheaded fellow bus passenger Tim McLean on a Greyhound bus in Manitoba.


Li, who believed he was on a God-sent quest to save people from an alien attack, was found not criminally responsible for McLean's death.

Instantly, he was catapulted into Canadian infamy.
Now, almost four years later, Li is talking about that day. Granting an interview to Chris Summerville, CEO of the Schizophrenia Society of Canada, Li speaks of the shame and guilt that followed the attack once he began treatment for his then-unidentified schizophrenia.
Summerville said that "unjustified public fears" about Li will likely keep him in a mental-health hospital longer than necessary.
McLean's mother would disagree, considering Li's earlier release from a mental-health institution gave him the freedom to kill her son.
The interview is a fascinating look inside the mind of the man dubbed a monster, whose supervised excursions from the Selkirk Mental Health Centre outraged Canadians. The interview should also be a reminder to remember Tim McLean, the man who "killed for no other reason than being in the wrong place at the wrong time."
McLean's mother, Carol de Delley, is campaigning for something she calls "Tim's Law." Li was released from a mental facility before his deadly attack, yet the Manitoba Review Board is currently being toldby Li's mental-healthcare providers that Li has made "significant progress" in his treatment and has a "low risk of reoffending."
De Delley wants to make sure Li doesn't have any chance to reoffend.
"De Delley continues to demand constructive institutional changes that will prevent future systematic injustices like Li's approved release from occurring again," Janice McKendrick writes in the Huffington Post. De Delley is also demanding a deeper examination into the complication relationship between mental illness and criminal activity, more transparency between institutions, and hopes to subsequently prevent others from experiencing her son's fate.
Below is the transcript of Li's interview, complete with preamble from Chris Summerville. While Li's awareness of his crime is encouraging, it's important to never forget Tim McLean.
INTERVIEW WITH A KILLER: VINCE LI SPEAKS
On May 19, 2012, I, Chris Summerville, CEO of the Schizophrenia Society of Canada, held my regular meeting with Vince Li, the person living with schizophrenia who beheaded Tim McLean.
I have been visiting Li on an average of once every two months since his remand to Selkirk Mental Health Centre 4 four years ago.
I have decided that Mr. Li's story needs to be told, to add a human touch to a horrible tragedy. What we have here are two victims and two families who are victims of untreated, uncontrolled psychosis.
Before I do any interview regarding the Greyhound Bus tragedy, I always ask myself, "What if it had been my 25-year-old daughter?"
My sympathy to Ms. de Delley [Tim McLean's mom] and her family are real. And yet, I also ask, "What if it had been my son who had killed Tim McLean in such a ghastly and grotesque fashion?"
I hope that such self-questioning softens my response to the many questions I have been asked about my personal and professional knowledge of Mr. Li.
There are no easy answers to the many faceted questions that bombard both families and the media. However, I think the media has been more favourable to the McLean family, probably because public sentiment is on their side and we as a country have entered a period of "tough on crime" with little attention paid to restorative justice, rehabilitation, recovery and redemption, or the influence and role of mental illness in this particular most unfortunate incident.
What follows is the result of an edited interview that took place at Selkirk Mental Health Centre after Mr. Li and I had enjoyed a Chinese meal that I had brought to him.
Mr. Li was soft spoken, using simple English as English is not his first language. His answers were rather direct and succinct, revealing a person who has given much contemplation to this tragedy and "his guilt."
The formal interview, which lasted about 45 minutes, is as follows, verbatim:
- Tell me about your background
I am a 44 years old and grew up in northeastern China in the province of Liaoning. My mother and father are still living. I have an older brother who is a businessman and a younger sister who is a secretary. They know about the Greyhounds bus situation, but my mother and father do not.
My wife and I immigrated to Winnipeg, Canada in June, 2001. I had studied as a computer engineer for 4 years in China. But I could not find a job in Canada. I worked at McDonalds, Meatland Foods and at Grant Memorial Baptist Church.
- Do you have a spirituality?
I believe in Jesus Christ. He is my Saviour. I try to follow God.
- When did you begin to experience schizophrenia?
In 2004. I didn't know what it was. I now know what it is.
I began to hear voices that normal people do not hear. I thought I heard the voice of God telling me to write down my journey.
The voice told me that I was the third story of the Bible. That I was like the second coming of Jesus.
I was to save people from a space alien attack. That is why I traveled around the country.
I am not sure of all the places I went to. I now know that it was schizophrenia I was suffering from.
- Why did you do what you did on the bus?
I bought a knife at Canadian Tire. I bought it for any emergency for the journey to protect myself from the aliens.
I was really scared. I remember cutting off his head. I believed he was an alien.
The voices told me to kill him. That he would kill me or others. I do not believe this now. It was totally wrong. It was my fault. I sinned. But it was the schizophrenia.
- What else do you remember about the incident?
I try to forget it. I try to stay busy here. It is painful to think about.
- How do you fell about what happened?
I feel nervous. I feel painful. I am embarrassed. It was wrong.
- Do you understand why people are scared of you?
Yes. I don't think I will ever do it again. I didn't know at that time I had schizophrenia. Now I do.
- What would you say to Ms. de Delley and Tim McLean's family?
I am really sorry for what I did. If I could talk to her directly I would do anything for their family. I would ask forgiveness, but I know it would be hard to accept.
- How has the time been at Selkirk Mental Health Centre?
I know that I suffer from schizophrenia. The treatment team gives me a chance to recover, to be normal. I am glad to be taking the medication.
- Do you think you are getting better?
Yes. My thinking is becoming normal. I don't think weird things. I take my medication, Olanzapine, everyday. I am glad to take it. I don't have any weird voices any more.
- How do we know you will take your medication when you get out on your own?
I would be glad to be under a treatment order because medication helps me. It is very important. I don't want to do what I did ever again.
- How does it make you feel that most people do not think you should get a pass to walk around in Selkirk? Do you understand their fear?
I understand people are scared because of my behaviour on the Greyhound bus. I am not at risk for anybody. I don't believe in aliens. I don't hear voices.
I would call my doctor if I heard voices again. Yes, I understand their fear.
- Some say the RCMP should have killed you that night.
I should have been killed at that time. I still believe that. But I am thankful that the RCMP didn't.
- What is schizophrenia? What are you learning?
It is hearing voices or having delusions. You don't know what is real. I need to take medication on time.
I also have to have meaningful activity, something to do. I have to learn how to handle stress.
- What helps you deal with stress?
Taking my medication. Exercising and doing Bible study with the chaplain here.
- Do you have side-effects from the medication?
Yes. I sleep too much. I feel tired a lot and I have gained some weight.
- Do you believe you should be under a treatment order?
I should be here. I should be under a treatment order.
- If you ever got out of Selkirk Mental Health Centre, what would you do?
I hope to leave one day, but I have to make sure it wouldn't happen again. That there would be no voices.
I would change my name to be anonymous. But I would still be in touch with my doctor.
- What do you think of Tim's Law that any mentally insane person who kills someone would never be released?
I don't think so, that that should happen. Mental illness is an illness. It is treatable.
My schizophrenia is not the real me, but it is an illness.
- How would you know you were getting sick again?
Hearing voices, stopping my medication, and starting to believe in aliens. God would not tell me to do something bad.
- How do you feel about what you are reading in the newspapers?
I don't read the papers because I don't want to be reminded of what happened on the Greyhound bus because it was so bad and wrong.
- Are you happy?
No.
- Will you ever be happy?
No. I can never forget the Greyhound bus.
- Any final words?
I would like to say to Tim McLean's mother I am sorry for killing your son. I am sorry for the pain I have caused.
I wished I could reduce that pain.
The INTERVIEWER'S TAKE ON LI
Summerville offered this take on his May 19 meeting with Li:
As we ended the interview, I could see the moisture in Mr. Li's eyes. It is remarkable the insight Mr. Li has. It is even more remarkable the positive effects of the medication. Up to 25 per cent of people who will have a psychotic break with reality will never experience another psychotic episode. Up to 65 per cent will experience a degree of recovery in order to live a meaning life. Ten per cent will take their life by suicide due to the losses associated with schizophrenia.
Of the 300,000 people in Canada who live with some form of schizophrenia, the vast majority lead quiet, law abiding lives hoping for some quality of life. People living with schizophrenia are more likely to be victims of violence rather than being perpetrators of violence. Schizophrenia is treatable. Recovery is possible.

http://ca.news.yahoo.com/blogs/dailybrew/victim-mother-campaigns-reform-vince-li-interview-released-161049991.html


Dr. Ron Paul 2016!


#76 Scottish⑦Canuck

Scottish⑦Canuck

    Canucks First-Line

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 5,943 posts
  • Joined: 04-March 07

Posted 23 May 2012 - 11:29 AM

^ Thanks for posting.

#77 ronthecivil

ronthecivil

    Canucks All-Star

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 18,477 posts
  • Joined: 18-August 05

Posted 23 May 2012 - 11:45 AM

You have to understand that Canada is all for rehabilitation. If there's hope for him to get better, there's major potential to lead a normal life.


While it's fine and dandy to have rehabilitation as the goal for the majority of criminals some people are beyond hope and with others they don't even come close to rehabilitating others.

Two main groups (who unshockingly overlap) are the mentally ill and the drug addicted. With the mentally ill there's no way to ensure that these people are going to take their meds. Odds are they are going to find some new and "improved" drugs to take instead. That these people end up either a victim or perp of violent crime far more frequently than average is of little surprise. If we really beleived in rehab then people diagnosed as being a potential danger to the public if they don't use their medicine should be required by law to take it. Unfortunately the wizards of ottawa and the charter would probably want to shame me for wanting to deny them their right to medicate them the way they see fit.

Similarily, the drug addicted (who may also be mentally ill) will need a way to finance their expensive habit and as a result will either steal or rent thier body out to pay for it. This causes a high cost (both financially and socially) to society. When inevitably these people go through the court system they sure TRY To get people to be off drugs but it's pretty clear that they are not successful. Not sure how the laywers and wizards of Ottawa figure that not putting people in jail long term for a life of crime is not reasonable. And while one could say that locking someone up for ten years for having committed 50 thefts isn't going to help rehab them it would sure be a good back up plan to hold over their heads if they refuse treatment including drug testing should they be deemed to be allowed to be back in the community.

Problem with a rehab only kind of system is that people are not dumb and figure out exactly how minimal a song and dance they require to be free - free to going back to the lifestyle they enjoy.

Edited by ronthecivil, 23 May 2012 - 11:46 AM.


#78 MillerGenuineDraft

MillerGenuineDraft

    Canucks Third-Line

  • Members
  • PipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPipPip
  • 3,821 posts
  • Joined: 28-December 07

Posted 23 May 2012 - 06:49 PM

While it's fine and dandy to have rehabilitation as the goal for the majority of criminals some people are beyond hope and with others they don't even come close to rehabilitating others.

Two main groups (who unshockingly overlap) are the mentally ill and the drug addicted. With the mentally ill there's no way to ensure that these people are going to take their meds. Odds are they are going to find some new and "improved" drugs to take instead. That these people end up either a victim or perp of violent crime far more frequently than average is of little surprise. If we really beleived in rehab then people diagnosed as being a potential danger to the public if they don't use their medicine should be required by law to take it. Unfortunately the wizards of ottawa and the charter would probably want to shame me for wanting to deny them their right to medicate them the way they see fit.

Similarily, the drug addicted (who may also be mentally ill) will need a way to finance their expensive habit and as a result will either steal or rent thier body out to pay for it. This causes a high cost (both financially and socially) to society. When inevitably these people go through the court system they sure TRY To get people to be off drugs but it's pretty clear that they are not successful. Not sure how the laywers and wizards of Ottawa figure that not putting people in jail long term for a life of crime is not reasonable. And while one could say that locking someone up for ten years for having committed 50 thefts isn't going to help rehab them it would sure be a good back up plan to hold over their heads if they refuse treatment including drug testing should they be deemed to be allowed to be back in the community.

Problem with a rehab only kind of system is that people are not dumb and figure out exactly how minimal a song and dance they require to be free - free to going back to the lifestyle they enjoy.


While I agree with most of what you have said, I do not believe that all patients who enter rehab are looking for the minimal requirement to leave. Some are actually there to get better. Although it may not be the case for everybody, they sure do exist.
MILLERGENUINEDRAFT




Canucks.com is the official Web site of The Vancouver Canucks. The Vancouver Canucks and Canucks.com are trademarks of The Vancouver Canucks Limited Partnership.  NHL and the word mark and image of the Stanley Cup are registered trademarks and the NHL Shield and NHL Conference logos are trademarks of the National Hockey League. All NHL logos and marks and NHL team logos and marks as well as all other proprietary materials depicted herein are the property of the NHL and the respective NHL teams and may not be reproduced without the prior written consent of NHL Enterprises, L.P.  Copyright © 2009 The Vancouver Canucks Limited Partnership and the National Hockey League.  All Rights Reserved.