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Black Holes - Would Earth be sucked in?


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#31 RUPERTKBD

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Posted 20 September 2012 - 01:12 PM

It wouldn't explode, the sun is way too small. It essentially would turn into a Red Giant, and expand. Then the outer layers would blow off slowly as it became a white dwarf star


It seems to me that I read or heard somewhere that the expansion would be great enough to engulf the inner planets...
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#32 :D

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Posted 20 September 2012 - 01:37 PM

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#33 Buddhas Hand

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Posted 29 September 2012 - 02:49 PM

Posted Image

A first: Astronomers measure radius of supermassive black hole
Sep 28, 2012 2:00 PM

It took an array of four radio dishes positioned around the globe and an international team of astronomers to do it, but it was well worth the effort: Astronomers have measured the radius of a supermassive black hole in the M87 galaxy that is 50 million light years away and 6 billion times more massive than our sun.
Update: As Erin Bow explains in the comments, the image above isn't actually new — it's from 2000. What's new is the study of the black hole, which doesn't yet have an image associated with it. Read on for more details about the study.
The new data was compiled by a research team led by astronomers at MIT's Haystack Observatory. To do so, they linked together radio dishes located in Hawaii, Arizona, and California, to create the "Event Horizon Telescope" that can see details 2,000 times finer than the Hubble Space Telescope. And by using the EHT, the astronomers were able to measure — for the first time — the radius of a black hole at the center of a distant galaxy.
Cosmological traffic jams and magnetically accelerated high-speed jets
The EHT allowed the team to catch a vivid glimpse of the glowing accretion disk and the massive plume that's emanating outwards.


Full sizePosted Image
As gravitationally bound matter makes its way closer and closer to the black hole's event horizon, its spin causes the black hole to spin itself. At the same time, the black hole collects so much matter that it can't swallow it all, thus resulting in a kind of cosmological traffic jam. It's this super-dense and super-fast collection of spinning debris that results in the shining light that appears just outside the event horizon.

The telescope also allowed the astronomers to determine that the particle jet shooting outwards from the heart of the galaxy was launched from a region very close to the black hole — one that's a mere 5.5 times larger than the estimated size of the event horizon (or radius) of the cosmological singularity.
And in fact, the presence of the jet proves that there's a black hole involved. The super-dense object that's causing this effect must occupy a small volume of space — one that's smaller than the jet's source region. In other words, a supermassive black hole.
The plume itself is caused by strong magnetic fields. They accelerate hot material (tight streams of electrons and other sub-atomic particles) along powerful beams above the accretion disk, resulting in a high-speed jet (launched by the black hole) that shoots out across the galaxy for hundreds of thousands of light-years and at nearly the speed of light (just for perspective, the Milky Way itself is about 120,000 light years in diameter). It's thought that these jets are a major influence on galactic processes, including the speed of star formation.
The smallest orbit
By studying the jet's trajectory, scientists are hoping to better understand the dynamics of black holes in a region where gravity is the dominant force. And in fact, the EHT will allow the scientists to confirm Einsteinian theories of gravitation. Specifically, astronomers can now estimate rate of the black hole's spin by measuring the size of the jet as it leaves the black hole. They're now able to do so because, for the first time ever, they can measure the smallest orbit just outside the event horizon.
In terms of next steps, the astronomers are going to expand the telescope array by adding radio dishes in Chile, Europe, Mexico, Greenland and Antarctica.
You can read the entire study at Science.
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#34 DarthNinja

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Posted 29 September 2012 - 03:38 PM

I think you're wrong.

The mass is still the same, but when it's compressed, the gravitational force increases exponentially, at least that's what Einstein argued, I believe. Gravity is not just related to mass.

Think about it like this: You put a light ball on your bed, and it would create a depression on your bed. now, if you were to put a smaller ball with the same weight, the depression created would be greater....it's a weird analogy, but that what they showed on Nova, a great show on PBS.

According to Stephen Hawking, the gravity is infact so great that once you are "sucked in" to the black hole, time stops. If you threw a watch in the black hole, assuming it didn't break from the great force, it would stop. Not because it's broken, but because time has stopped. He argued there can be no God that created the world before the big bang since it was essentially one black hole, because there was no "time" for a diety to create it.

Edit: Also, not all stars turn into back holes. Only a few do, some become dead stars etc.


Einstein actually held some incorrect theories regarding black holes (starting with the fact they he did not believe they existed) but regarding the gravitational force of the sun becoming a black hole with earth, the relationship of gravity is dependent on two factors - distance and mass and since both would remain constant, so would the gravitational effect...so the theory goes.

EDIT: If I am again not mistaken, it has been theorized and suggested with Einstein's work that when an object (i.e. star) collapses into a black hole, the object would disappear completely from view, however; its gravitational presence would remain the same.

Edited by DarthNinja_S19Blade, 29 September 2012 - 04:10 PM.

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#35 DarthNinja

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Posted 29 September 2012 - 03:58 PM

I think that's where you are wrong.

Even if we were to work with your assumption, the distance has changed since the mass is now compressed, therefore the distance between the earth and outside of the sun is greater than the distance between the earth and outside of the "mass" at centre of the black hole. Under your assumption, earth would be hurled into space since the distance is now increased, because the mass is so compressed now.

You are working within the basic laws of physics, but they get quite wonky when you deal with quantam mechanics etc. I don't claim to be expert in the area, but experts like Einstein, and Hawking seem to suggest the gravitational force changes. It is not within the law of physics the average person is familiar with.

It appears to be the case that it is not only mass and distance that causes gravity, which is what you are suggesting, but also affected by some other factors we are not familiar with.

Remember, Einstein suggested there were black holes before scientists ever saw evidence of one, based on his theories of physics, which are very esoteric, so applying the normal law we are familiar with doesn't work. Basically, most scientists in the field did not conclusively believe in the existence of the black hole (this is all very theoretical physics until recently), until they saw some information for the Hubble telescope that seem to be in line with what Einstein was talking about.

A black hole isn't what you see in the movies, which looks like a wormhole. If you saw a black hole, the only thing you would notice is that stars behind it look a little distorted, because the light from stars behind it gets bent (but isn't completely sucked in like the light from the mass within the black hole). Black hole are basically invisible to the naked eye.

Finally, what you and I are suggesting would both likely not occur, since earth is close enough to the sun to be destroyed by the supernova that precedes a black hole.


I believe that other scientists used Einstein's theories to suggest and explain the existence of black holes but Einstein disagreed with them. One well known example if I am not mistaken is the singularity at the center of a black hole.
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"Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens & the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We (Allah) parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" (Qur'an 21:30)

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"Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure--one world, if you will. If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it.” (David Rockefeller)


#36 DarthNinja

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Posted 29 September 2012 - 04:27 PM

the more we know...the more we have to learn and understand.


Posted Image
This image depicts a simulation of a relativistic jet of particles shooting out of a black hole. (Avery E. Broderick/Waterloo University)

Researchers have, for the first time, crafted an image of the outermost edge of a supermassive black hole, and estimated how close matter can approach before arriving at the “event horizon”—the point of no return. They also report the first confirmed sighting of the origin of the “relativistic jets” that are believed to come out of the interactions between supermassive black holes and the matter that surrounds them.

Supermassive black holes are believed to reside at the center of virtually every galaxy. Because they are so massive and yet so small, rings of matter called accretion disks circle the black hole, their contents waiting to be sucked into the hole’s core like water circling the drain.

Astronomers have previously theorized that huge jets of material from the center of galaxies emanate out for incredible distances, and many have suggested that they are caused by the conversion of gravitational energy when matter from the accretion disks interacts with the powerful magnetic fields of the black hole. Because they shoot particles such long distances, these jets are believed to play an important role in the distribution of matter throughout the universe.

In the new study, published online Thursday in the journal Science, a large international team of researchers linked together telescopes from four different sites in Hawaii, California and Arizona to create a “virtual telescope” of unprecedented strength.

The telescope allowed the researchers to actually create an image of the edge of a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy called M87, which is 50 million light-years away from Earth.

The researchers were able to resolve that the jet’s base was about 5.5 times bigger than the radius of the black hole—about the expected size if it was coming from the black hole. The researchers assumed that the base of the jet would be roughly the same as the smallest accretion disk—the one closest to the black hole’s center.

The measurement also suggests that the black hole at the center of M87 is actually spinning—the accretion disk was so close to the black hole, the researchers found, that it could only be explained if the accretion disk and the black hole were spinning in the same direction.

In the future, the team plans to link together even more telescopes, hoping to be able to view the edge of the black hole for longer periods of time.

http://www.latimes.c...story?track=rss

Posted Image
The black hole in galaxy M87 pictured here shows jets of particles shooting out of it.

Like all invisible things that are only partly understood, black holes evoke a sense of mystery.

Astronomers know that the tremendous gravitational pull of a black hole sucks matter in.

They also know that the material falling in causes powerful jets of particles to shoot out of the black hole at nearly the speed of light.

But how exactly this phenomenon occurs remains a matter of conjecture because astronomers have never quite managed to observe the details. Well, now they have.

Sheperd Doeleman, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory in Westford, and his colleagues, have taken the closest look to date at the region where matter swirls around a black hole.

By measuring the size of the base of a jet shooting out of the supermassive black hole at the centre of the M87 galaxy, the researchers conclude that the black hole must be spinning and that the material orbiting must also be swirling in the same direction.

Some of the material from this orbiting "accretion disk" is also falling into the black hole, like water swirling down a drain. The finding appears online today in Science.

For the past few years, Doeleman and his colleagues have been working to link up radio dishes around the world into a virtual telescope with unprecedented magnifying power, which would enable researchers to observe the immediate vicinity of the black hole in the heart of M87—a favorite target for astronomers, as it is one of the brightest objects in the sky.

So far, the researchers have linked radio dishes at three sites. That hasn't provided enough resolution to see all the way to the edge of the black hole.

But it enabled the researchers to measure the area through which the jet is being emitted.

The size of this emission region fits with only one particular theoretical model of how these jets form.

The base of the jet "reduces to the size we measured only when the black hole is spinning and the accretion disk is orbiting in the same direction," Doeleman said.

"What we find so exciting is that we are now finally able to measure structures so close to the black hole."

He and his colleagues hope to use the Event Horizon Telescope - the instrument being created by linking the radio dishes - to test "whether Einstein's theory of general relativity is valid at the one place in the universe where it might break down: the event horizon of a black hole."

The paper "is very interesting," said Meg Urry, an astrophysicist at Yale University who was not involved in the study.

"Measuring the launch point for the jet is absolutely critical for understanding how jets form, and indeed how jet energy is extracted from the black hole-disk system."

However, Urry points out, the conclusions rest on a number of assumptions that are "difficult to confirm"- such as whether the measured area does lie directly on top of the black hole rather than off to the side or elsewhere.

http://www.stuff.co....wirls-close-up/
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"Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens & the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We (Allah) parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" (Qur'an 21:30)

11477626583_2368927097.jpg     49997_b70e6ae14ce1652fa11bd1dda624afd1.g   7649118508_ce3e8a74a1_o.jpg

"Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure--one world, if you will. If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it.” (David Rockefeller)


#37 silverpig

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 09:32 AM

I think you're wrong.

The mass is still the same, but when it's compressed, the gravitational force increases exponentially, at least that's what Einstein argued, I believe. Gravity is not just related to mass.

Think about it like this: You put a light ball on your bed, and it would create a depression on your bed. now, if you were to put a smaller ball with the same weight, the depression created would be greater....it's a weird analogy, but that what they showed on Nova, a great show on PBS.

According to Stephen Hawking, the gravity is infact so great that once you are "sucked in" to the black hole, time stops. If you threw a watch in the black hole, assuming it didn't break from the great force, it would stop. Not because it's broken, but because time has stopped. He argued there can be no God that created the world before the big bang since it was essentially one black hole, because there was no "time" for a diety to create it.

Edit: Also, not all stars turn into back holes. Only a few do, some become dead stars etc.



That's not correct. If you compressed the sun (via some means) to become a black hole, the earth's orbit would not change.

<- astrophysics degree :)
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#38 Sharpshooter

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 10:40 AM

That's not correct. If you compressed the sun (via some means) to become a black hole, the earth's orbit would not change.

<- astrophysics degree :)


Is that because the Sun doesn't have the mass to become a black-hole or because the gravitational pull wouldn't be any stronger than it is now, or something else?
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#39 D-Bo7

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 11:15 AM

The real question is, if the moon was made of barbeque spare ribs, would you eat it?

I know I would! Heck, I'd have seconds! Then polish it off with a tall cool budweiser.

Edited by D-Bo7, 30 September 2012 - 11:19 AM.

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#40 Hugemanskost

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 12:28 PM

Bend over and see for yourself!

:lol:
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#41 Tortorella's Rant

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 12:32 PM

The real question is, if the moon was made of barbeque spare ribs, would you eat it?

I know I would! Heck, I'd have seconds! Then polish it off with a tall cool budweiser.


Sounded good until you decided to have a bud.
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#42 Neufy161

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 12:43 PM

Is that because the Sun doesn't have the mass to become a black-hole or because the gravitational pull wouldn't be any stronger than it is now, or something else?


its because the gravitational force would remain the exact same,

If the sun became a black hole, its mass would be identical to what it is now, the earths mass, obviously, would remain unchanged, and the distance between the two objects would remain unchanged... trajectories of components in our solar system would remain unchanged.
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#43 Neufy161

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 12:47 PM

That's not correct. If you compressed the sun (via some means) to become a black hole, the earth's orbit would not change.

<- astrophysics degree :)


Maaan I should have gotten my Astrophysics education!
That's wicked, there are only about 600,000-ish astrophysicists on the planet...

Ladies and gentlemen, that means the odds of being in the presence of an astrophysicist is 1 in 1,000,000... take this opportunity
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#44 GodzillaDeuce

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 01:06 PM

That's not correct. If you compressed the sun (via some means) to become a black hole, the earth's orbit would not change.

<- astrophysics degree :)


so if you compressed the sun into a black hole, would you only witness extreme gravitational forces inside the radius of the current sun, but forces outside the current surface would remain completely unchanged?
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well I'm sorry that gd is soo perfect


#45 Sharpshooter

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 01:18 PM

its because the gravitational force would remain the exact same,

If the sun became a black hole, its mass would be identical to what it is now, the earths mass, obviously, would remain unchanged, and the distance between the two objects would remain unchanged... trajectories of components in our solar system would remain unchanged.


Yeah, that's what I was thinking as well. Made the most sense.
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#46 silverpig

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 02:07 PM

Yes. This is correct. There is no difference between orbiting a star a some standard planetary distance and orbiting a black hole of the same mass at the same distance. The difference comes in when you get really close due to relativistic space-time warping effects. I would have to run the numbers (probably couldn't do it anymore as I haven't been in physics for a while now), but the orbit of a planet just outside the sun's surface (so, really close) might actually be significantly different if the sun turned into a black hole.

Basically, the orbits are exactly the same if they are infinitely far from the central mass, they are completely different at extremely short distances, and the differences become significant near the star (so multiples of the star's radius).

For distances of the earth's orbit, we wouldn't ever notice, but a very sensitive experiment may be able to tell.
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#47 Buddhas Hand

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 02:38 PM

That's not correct. If you compressed the sun (via some means) to become a black hole, the earth's orbit would not change.

<- astrophysics degree :)


i am seeking information on comet C/2012 S1 , if you could check the thread and tell us what angle to the plane the comet's path will take .
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Aldous Huxley.


#48 babych

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 02:49 PM

I did not know that. I haven't done physics in a while, and most of what I'm saying is what I heard on TV. I could just be remembering it wrong, so don't quote me on any of this.

I am pretty sure black holes have greater gravitational force than the sun it originated from, but as to why that is true, I couldn't say since I don't remember it. I do remember that ball on the bed analogy, and that made the most sense to me. It goes further to say if you kept compressing the ball, the "depression" would continue to increase, but the increase closer to the ball is greater than increase further from it (I'm not sure about the italicized part). It essentially becomes like an upside down pylon.

Edit: I love the Soundgarden reference, but I don't think it would be called a "sun" anymore.

Edit 2: You are all using Newton's formula for gravity. Remember, Newton is taught to give you the fundamentals, but a lot of what he believed was wrong. You can destroy matter (E=mc2). I think atomic weapons work by destroying a small amount of mass to create a significant amount of energy

I don't want to sidetrack this discussion but that's not how atomic weapons work.

Atoms are held together by the Strong Nuclear Force (SNF) which binds protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Fun fact: the nucleus of an atom actually weights LESS than the sum of the individual protons and neutrons constitute said nucleus. The "missing mass" is actually the binding energy that is keeping the nucleus together.

As an equation it looks like this: "sum of the individual protons and neutrons" = "actual mass of the atom" + "binding energy"


When atoms are fissioned, that energy is released and we get nuclear power. Mass is not actually turned in energy.
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#49 Red Light Racicot

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 03:18 PM

I figured this would be useful:


F=Gm1m2 divided by R squared

F is the force between the masses

G is the gravitational constant

m1 is the first mass

m2 is the second mass

R is the distance between the centers of the masses




Basically density makes no difference

Edited by Red Light Racicot, 30 September 2012 - 03:19 PM.

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#50 silverpig

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 05:46 PM

Babych: you have it backwards. The atom weighs more than the sum of the individual protons and neutrons.
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#51 Hugemanskost

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 05:59 PM

Babych: you have it backwards. The atom weighs more than the sum of the individual protons and neutrons.


You have to take the mass of electrons into account, too, when calculating atomic mass.
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#52 silverpig

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 06:04 PM

You have to take the mass of electrons into account, too, when calculating atomic mass.


Well sure. I guess the point is that the nucleus weighs more than the sum of the protons and neutrons.
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#53 Neufy161

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 06:31 PM

so if you compressed the sun into a black hole, would you only witness extreme gravitational forces inside the radius of the current sun, but forces outside the current surface would remain completely unchanged?


yes, exactly

mind = blown

Edited by Neufy161, 30 September 2012 - 06:33 PM.

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#54 babych

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 08:07 PM

Babych: you have it backwards. The atom weighs more than the sum of the individual protons and neutrons.

You have to take the mass of electrons into account, too, when calculating atomic mass.

Well sure. I guess the point is that the nucleus weighs more than the sum of the protons and neutrons.

Sorry silverpig but I am totally correct. The nucleus of an atom weighs LESS than the sum of its' protons and neutrons. This "missing mass" is the energy stored to keep the nucleus together and is released when the nucleus is fissioned.

http://library.think...ing_energy.html

As to the electrons - they weigh about 1/2000 of what a proton or neutron weigh and so don't really factor into this.

It has to be this way otherwise there wouldn't be so much energy involved in fission. Energy gets stored in the nucleus to keep it together and balances the equation as mass (E-mc^2).

If it were the other way then it would cost more energy to fission than we would get from the process.
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QUOTE
(shiznak@Jun 17 2008, 08:00 PM)
Kesler was lucky to score 20 this year since the injury to Morrison allowed him to do so.

I doubt Kesler would ever break 15 goals in his career again.

#55 Hugemanskost

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 08:23 PM

Sorry silverpig but I am totally correct. The nucleus of an atom weighs LESS than the sum of its' protons and neutrons. This "missing mass" is the energy stored to keep the nucleus together and is released when the nucleus is fissioned.

http://library.think...ing_energy.html

As to the electrons - they weigh about 1/2000 of what a proton or neutron weigh and so don't really factor into this.

It has to be this way otherwise there wouldn't be so much energy involved in fission. Energy gets stored in the nucleus to keep it together and balances the equation as mass (E-mc^2).

If it were the other way then it would cost more energy to fission than we would get from the process.


True this. It's called mass defect if I remember correctly.
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#56 babych

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Posted 30 September 2012 - 08:38 PM

True this. It's called mass defect if I remember correctly.

Thanks - and you are correct in the terminology.
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(shiznak@Jun 17 2008, 08:00 PM)
Kesler was lucky to score 20 this year since the injury to Morrison allowed him to do so.

I doubt Kesler would ever break 15 goals in his career again.

#57 Ghostsof1915

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Posted 01 October 2012 - 07:14 AM

It seemed so much more realistic when it first came out.


I was 12 years old when it came out so it was more believable at the time.
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#58 Buddhas Hand

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Posted 05 October 2012 - 02:30 PM

NASA's Swift Satellite Discovers a New Black Hole in our Galaxy
10.05.12

An X-ray outburst caught by NASA's Swift on Sept. 16, 2012, resulted from a flood of gas plunging toward a previously unknown black hole. Gas flowing from a sun-like star collects into a disk around the black hole. Normally, this gas would steadily spiral inward. But in this system, named Swift J1745-26, the gas collects for decades before suddenly surging inward. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
› Download video in high resolution from Goddard's Scientific Visualization Studio

NASA's Swift satellite recently detected a rising tide of high-energy X-rays from a source toward the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The outburst, produced by a rare X-ray nova, announced the presence of a previously unknown stellar-mass black hole.

"Bright X-ray novae are so rare that they're essentially once-a-mission events and this is the first one Swift has seen," said Neil Gehrels, the mission's principal investigator, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "This is really something we've been waiting for."

An X-ray nova is a short-lived X-ray source that appears suddenly, reaches its emission peak in a few days and then fades out over a period of months. The outburst arises when a torrent of stored gas suddenly rushes toward one of the most compact objects known, either a neutron star or a black hole.

The rapidly brightening source triggered Swift's Burst Alert Telescope twice on the morning of Sept. 16, and once again the next day.

Named Swift J1745-26 after the coordinates of its sky position, the nova is located a few degrees from the center of our galaxy toward the constellation Sagittarius. While astronomers do not know its precise distance, they think the object resides about 20,000 to 30,000 light-years away in the galaxy's inner region.

Ground-based observatories detected infrared and radio emissions, but thick clouds of obscuring dust have prevented astronomers from catching Swift J1745-26 in visible light.

The nova peaked in hard X-rays -- energies above 10,000 electron volts, or several thousand times that of visible light -- on Sept. 18, when it reached an intensity equivalent to that of the famous Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant that serves as a calibration target for high-energy observatories and is considered one of the brightest sources beyond the solar system at these energies.

Even as it dimmed at higher energies, the nova brightened in the lower-energy, or softer, emissions detected by Swift's X-ray Telescope, a behavior typical of X-ray novae. By Wednesday, Swift J1745-26 was 30 times brighter in soft X-rays than when it was discovered and it continued to brighten.

"The pattern we're seeing is observed in X-ray novae where the central object is a black hole. Once the X-rays fade away, we hope to measure its mass and confirm its black hole status," said Boris Sbarufatti, an astrophysicist at Brera Observatory in Milan, Italy, who currently is working with other Swift team members at Penn State in University Park, Pa.

The black hole must be a member of a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system, which includes a normal, sun-like star. A stream of gas flows from the normal star and enters into a storage disk around the black hole. In most LMXBs, the gas in the disk spirals inward, heats up as it heads toward the black hole, and produces a steady stream of X-rays.

But under certain conditions, stable flow within the disk depends on the rate of matter flowing into it from the companion star. At certain rates, the disk fails to maintain a steady internal flow and instead flips between two dramatically different conditions -- a cooler, less ionized state where gas simply collects in the outer portion of the disk like water behind a dam, and a hotter, more ionized state that sends a tidal wave of gas surging toward the center.

"Each outburst clears out the inner disk, and with little or no matter falling toward the black hole, the system ceases to be a bright source of X-rays," said John Cannizzo, a Goddard astrophysicist. "Decades later, after enough gas has accumulated in the outer disk, it switches again to its hot state and sends a deluge of gas toward the black hole, resulting in a new X-ray outburst."

This phenomenon, called the thermal-viscous limit cycle, helps astronomers explain transient outbursts across a wide range of systems, from protoplanetary disks around young stars, to dwarf novae -- where the central object is a white dwarf star -- and even bright emission from supermassive black holes in the hearts of distant galaxies.

Swift, launched in November 2004, is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center. It is operated in collaboration with Penn State, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Orbital Sciences Corp. in Dulles, Va., with international collaborators in the United Kingdom and Italy and including contributions from Germany and Japan
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The Real war is not between the east and the west. The real war is between intelligent and stupid people.

Marjane Satrapi

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That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.

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#59 Drybone

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Posted 05 October 2012 - 07:26 PM

There is no such thing as gravity
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#60 Buddhas Hand

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Posted 06 October 2012 - 02:23 AM

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The Real war is not between the east and the west. The real war is between intelligent and stupid people.

Marjane Satrapi

tony-abbott-and-stephen-harper-custom-da

That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.

Aldous Huxley.





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