I do read.
No, I can not provide off the top of my head "evidence that religion has had efficacy as a treatment option for youth".
The real question is - can it help? Maybe. Maybe not.
They say the Lords prayer at an Aboriginal school that my wife used to teach at.
That school had the lowest "incidents" of any other Aboriginal school in Alberta.
Was it because of the Lord's prayer? I doubt it - but it may have helped.
As far as corporal punishment - I lived through it so yes, I know that it wasn't perfect.
Sometimes it worked - sometimes not.
My reason for bringing it up is that we haven't had it for a long time in Canada nor the US - yet we still have these "incidents".
So it's obvious it wasn't the reason for them - and yes, incidents still happened when it existed - so we are back at square one.
Do I have the answer. Nope.
I appreciate that you did do work to look up what relevant literature has said (I'm being sincere, no internet sarcasm). However, in virtually all of the following empirical articles and book chapters, abuse is identified as having a strong and positive relationship with future offending:
Cale, J. (2006). Criminology 313- Specific Types of Crime: Serious & Violent Youth. Custom Violence and serious theft: Development and prediction from childhood to adulthood
[e2] (pp. 169-229). New York, NY: Routledge.
Howell, J.C., Krisberg, B., & Jones, M. (1995). Trends in juvenile crime and youth violence. In J.C. Howell, B. Krisberg, J.D. Hawkins, & J.J. Wilson (Eds.), A sourcebook: Serious, violent, & chronic juvenile offending (pp. 1-35). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Treatment of antisocial behavior in children: Current status and future directions. Kazdin, Alan E. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 102(2), Sep 1987, 187-203.
Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offenders. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions
(pp. 13–29). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, [e3] .
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (2001). The development of male offending: Key findings from the first decade of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. In R. Bull (Ed.), Children and the law: Essential readings in developmental psychology
(pp. 336-380). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Loeber, R., & Hay, D.F. (1994). Developmental approaches to aggression and conduct problems. In M. Rutter & D.F. Hay (Eds.), Development through life: A handbook for clinicians
(pp. 448-516). London, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). The development of offending. Criminal Justice and Behavior
Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998). Development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist
Moffitt, T.E. (1993). "Life-course-persistent" and "adolescent-limited" antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review
Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B.J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology
Patterson, G.R., Forgatch, M.S., Yoerger, K.L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Variables that initiate and maintain an early-onset trajectory of juvenile offending. Development and Psychopathology
Piquero, A.R., & Brezina, T. (2006). Testing Moffitt’s account of Adolescence-Limited delinquency. Criminology
Piquero, A.R., Farrington, D.P., & Blumstein, A. (2007). Key issues in criminal career research: New analyses of the Cambridge Study in delinquent development
. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Piquero, A.R., & Moffitt, T.E. (2008). Explaining the facts of crime: How the developmental taxonomy replies to Farrington’s invitation. In D.P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated development & life-course theories of offending
(Vol. 14, pp. 51-72). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Robins, L. (1966). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality.
Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
Sampson, R.J., & Laub, J.H. (1992). Crime and deviance in the life course. Annual Review of Sociology
Sampson, R.J., & Laub, J.H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology
Savage, J. (2009). Understanding persistent offending: Linking developmental psychology with research on the criminal career. In J. Savage (Ed.), The development of persistent criminality
(pp. 3-33). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Schubert, C.A., Mulvey, E.P., Loughran, T.A., & Losoya, S.H. (2012) Perceptions of institutional experience and community outcomes for serious adolescent offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior
Thornberry, T.P., Huizinga, D., & Loeber, R. (1995). The prevention of serious delinquency and violence: Implications from the program of research on the causes and correlates of delinquency. In J.C. Howell, B. Krisberg, J.D. Hawkins, & J.J. Wilson (Eds.), A sourcebook: Serious, violent, & chronic juvenile offending
(pp. 213-237). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Tracy, P.E., Wolfgang, M.E., Figlio, R.M. (1990). Delinquency careers in two birth cohorts. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Tremblay, R.E., & Nagin, D.S. (2005). The developmental origins of physical aggression in humans. In R.E. Tremblay, W.W.
Hartup, & J. Archer (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression
(pp. 83-106). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
White, H.R., Bates, M.E., & Buyske, S. (2001). Adolescence-limited versus persistent delinquency: Examining Moffitt’s hypothesis into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
While corporal punishment may have worked in some cases, in other cases it would have lead to direct aggravation of future risk for antisocial and/or criminal behaviour. There are methods other than corporal punishment that are equally (if not moreso effective) that do not carry the same risks that corporal punishment does.
In regard to the article that you listed, the type of corporal punishment that had positive outcomes involved two light slaps to the buttocks of children aged 2-6 which was followed by the parent(s) re-affirming their love for the child afterward.
So these findings (a) don't support the use of corporal punishment in schools, (b ) suggest that corporal punishment be very minimal (i.e. no use of the strap), and © suggest that children be handled tenderly following spanking.
So, corporal punishment will not be effective when used by teachers, when used excessively, when used with a degree of force, and when not followed with positive parenting.
I think this quote from the article you cited is most telling (found on the second page):
In several studies, kids whose parents used a balance of love and limits, including backup spanking, were found to be doing much better 10 years later during adolescence than kids whose parents were overly punitive and did not show love in various ways to the child. They were also doing better than kids whose parents were permissive, emphasizing love and reasoning to the near-exclusion of any kind of negative consequences.
So, kids whose parents use a balance of love and limits, that includes backup spanking
, were found to have better outcomes than overly permissive parents and parents who used punitive/authoritarian parenting styles. The key in this research is that authoritative (not authoritarian) parents who didn't spank children were included in the same group that used backup spanking. In this research, there was no way to tease apart the differences between authoritarian parents who didn't spank, and authoritarian parents who did spank. So, the research doesn't even suggest that light spanking as a backup plan works better when compared to authoritative parents who do not spank. It may still be that the differences between the balanced parenting group and the permissive and punitive parenting groups were due to the better outcomes of children who were parented using an authoritative style that did not include spanking.
Edited by Down by the River, 24 October 2012 - 04:55 PM.