Jump to content
The Official Site of the Vancouver Canucks
Canucks Community

Remarkable video captures the flow of proteins inside an individual neuron


Satan's Evil Twin

Recommended Posts

Remarkable video captures the flow of proteins inside an individual neuron

2602186_32.jpg Robert T. Gonzalez

This is absolutely incredible. Molecular biologists at USC have captured video footage of a neuron so finely detailed, you can actually observe the transport of individual proteins throughout the cell's structure. This offers the researchers an unprecedented look at how neurons restore themselves on a day-to-day basis. They describe their novel imaging technique in the latest issue of Cell Reports.

"Your brain is being disassembled and reassembled every day," said study co-author Don Arnold in statement.

"One week from today, your brain will be made up of completely different proteins than it is today. This video shows the process. We've known that it was happening, but now we can watch it happen."

UPDATE #2: Don Arnold, who led the study, tells io9 the movie has a frame rate of around 15 fps, and that the speed of vesicle transport depicted in the video is roughly 15—20 times that of real-time.

UPDATE #1: Redditor d0peamine asked about how the speed of vesicle transport in this video compares to real-time. Here's what I dug up:

According to the article from which this video is taken (which is open acces, btw... available here), images for the video were collected at 1–1.5 frames/s for ~2 min.

I didn't see any information on the framerate of the video itself, but I did find the figure pictured below, which depicts the distance traveled by the vesicles over time. The graphs corresponding to the video up top are the ones depicting distance traveled over time for FM4-NgCAM-GFP(graphs C and F):

xlarge.jpg

Given the size of the soma of the neuron in the video (~10uM diameter), it looks like these videos depict the vesicles moving at speeds several times real-time.

The researchers' findings are recounted in greater detail in the latest issue of Cell Reports (no subscription required)

http://io9.com/5937572/remarkable-video-captures-the-flow-of-proteins-inside-an-individual-neuron

Science, gotta love it.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

I noticed that too. I wonder why that is? Could it be because the age of the neuron being examined or the age of the person?

I noticed some pathways that looked blocked, and others that only had like one protein travelling through it. I wonder why?

Anyways, fascinating stuff that elicits more questions than it answers, perhaps for me.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Maybe it's because they're traveling between neurons and not all neurons are firing at the same rate and capacity? That would explain why some pathways are more populated than others, anyway.

The fact that we can see this blows my mind.

PS. Did you hear about the plastic replacement that's stronger than steel?

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Why wood pulp is world's new wonder material

THE hottest new material in town is light, strong and conducts electricity. What's more, it's been around a long, long time.

, which is produced by processing wood pulp, is being hailed as the latest wonder material. Japan-based Pioneer Electronics is applying it to the next generation of flexible electronic displays. IBM is using it to create components for computers. Even the US army is getting in on the act, using it to make lightweight body armour and ballistic glass.

To ramp up production, the US
in Madison, Wisconsin, on 26 July, marking the rise of what the US National Science Foundation predicts will become a $600 billion industry by 2020.

So why all the fuss? Well, not only is NCC transparent but it is made from a tightly packed array of needle-like crystals which have a strength-to-weight ratio that is
. Even better, it's incredibly cheap.

"It is the natural, renewable version of a carbon nanotube at a fraction of the price," says
of Purdue University's NanoForestry Institute in West Lafayette, Indiana.

The $1.7 million factory, which is owned by the US Forest Service, will produce two types of NCC: crystals and fibrils.

Production of NCC starts with "purified" wood, which has had compounds such as lignin and hemicellulose removed. It is then milled into a pulp and hydrolysed in acid to remove impurities before being separated and concentrated as crystals into a thick paste that can be applied to surfaces as a laminate or processed into strands, forming nanofibrils. These are hard, dense and tough, and can be forced into different shapes and sizes. When freeze-dried, the material is lightweight, absorbent and good at insulating.

"The beauty of this material is that it is so abundant we don't have to make it," says Youngblood. "We don't even have to use entire trees; nanocellulose is only 200 nanometres long. If we wanted we could use twigs and branches or even sawdust. We are turning waste into gold."

The US facility is the second pilot production plant for cellulose-based nanomaterials in the world. The much larger
facility opened in Montreal, Canada, in November 2011 and is now producing a tonne of NCC a day.

Theodore Wegner, assistant director of the US factory, says it will be producing NCC on a large scale. It will be sold at just several dollars a kilogram within a couple of years. He says it has taken this long to unlock the potential of NCC because the technology to explore its properties, such as electron scanning microscopes, only emerged in the last decade or so.

NCC will replace metal and plastic car parts and could make nonorganic plastics obsolete in the not-too-distant future, says Phil Jones, director of new ventures and disruptive technologies at the French mineral processing company IMERYS. "Anyone who makes a car or a plastic bag will want to get in on this," he says.

In addition, the human body can deal with cellulose safely, says Jones, so NCC is less dangerous to process than inorganic composites. "The worst thing that could happen is a paper cut," he says.

When this article was first posted, Jeff Youngblood was incorrectly quoted as saying that nanocellulose is 2 nanometres long. It also incorrectly stated that NCC material has eight times the tensile strength of stainless steel – this has now been corrected.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528786.100-why-wood-pulp-is-worlds-new-wonder-material.html' rel="external nofollow">

::D
Oil can go the way of the Dodo.
Link to comment
Share on other sites

Maybe it's because they're traveling between neurons and not all neurons are firing at the same rate and capacity? That would explain why some pathways are more populated than others, anyway.

The fact that we can see this blows my mind.

PS. Did you hear about the plastic replacement that's stronger than steel?

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Why wood pulp is world's new wonder material

THE hottest new material in town is light, strong and conducts electricity. What's more, it's been around a long, long time.

, which is produced by processing wood pulp, is being hailed as the latest wonder material. Japan-based Pioneer Electronics is applying it to the next generation of flexible electronic displays. IBM is using it to create components for computers. Even the US army is getting in on the act, using it to make lightweight body armour and ballistic glass.

To ramp up production, the US
in Madison, Wisconsin, on 26 July, marking the rise of what the US National Science Foundation predicts will become a $600 billion industry by 2020.

So why all the fuss? Well, not only is NCC transparent but it is made from a tightly packed array of needle-like crystals which have a strength-to-weight ratio that is
. Even better, it's incredibly cheap.

"It is the natural, renewable version of a carbon nanotube at a fraction of the price," says
of Purdue University's NanoForestry Institute in West Lafayette, Indiana.

The $1.7 million factory, which is owned by the US Forest Service, will produce two types of NCC: crystals and fibrils.

Production of NCC starts with "purified" wood, which has had compounds such as lignin and hemicellulose removed. It is then milled into a pulp and hydrolysed in acid to remove impurities before being separated and concentrated as crystals into a thick paste that can be applied to surfaces as a laminate or processed into strands, forming nanofibrils. These are hard, dense and tough, and can be forced into different shapes and sizes. When freeze-dried, the material is lightweight, absorbent and good at insulating.

"The beauty of this material is that it is so abundant we don't have to make it," says Youngblood. "We don't even have to use entire trees; nanocellulose is only 200 nanometres long. If we wanted we could use twigs and branches or even sawdust. We are turning waste into gold."

The US facility is the second pilot production plant for cellulose-based nanomaterials in the world. The much larger
facility opened in Montreal, Canada, in November 2011 and is now producing a tonne of NCC a day.

Theodore Wegner, assistant director of the US factory, says it will be producing NCC on a large scale. It will be sold at just several dollars a kilogram within a couple of years. He says it has taken this long to unlock the potential of NCC because the technology to explore its properties, such as electron scanning microscopes, only emerged in the last decade or so.

NCC will replace metal and plastic car parts and could make nonorganic plastics obsolete in the not-too-distant future, says Phil Jones, director of new ventures and disruptive technologies at the French mineral processing company IMERYS. "Anyone who makes a car or a plastic bag will want to get in on this," he says.

In addition, the human body can deal with cellulose safely, says Jones, so NCC is less dangerous to process than inorganic composites. "The worst thing that could happen is a paper cut," he says.

When this article was first posted, Jeff Youngblood was incorrectly quoted as saying that nanocellulose is 2 nanometres long. It also incorrectly stated that NCC material has eight times the tensile strength of stainless steel – this has now been corrected.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528786.100-why-wood-pulp-is-worlds-new-wonder-material.html' rel="external nofollow">

::D
Oil can go the way of the Dodo.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

Archived

This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies.

  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    • No registered users viewing this page.
×
×
  • Create New...