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Mystery Of How The Egyptians Moved Pyramid Stones Solved Read


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http://www.iflscience.com/physics/mystery-how-egyptians-moved-pyramid-stones-solved

Mystery Of How The Egyptians Moved Pyramid Stones Solved

May 5, 2014 | by Janet Fang

Colosse-dj%C3%A9houtih%C3%A9tep.png?itokphoto credit: Schematic from the tomb of Djehutihotep depicting the transport of a colossal statue. Notice the person standing by the statue’s foot is pouring water over the sand right in front of the sled / Wikimedia
Ancient Egyptians had to pull massive statues and pyramid stones weighing 2.5 tons on large sleds across the desert -- without any modern mechanical device. Now, new research shows how adding a small amount of water to sand significantly reduces the sliding friction -- a clever trick that allowed the Egyptians to cut the number of workers needed by half.
To make a good sandcastle, you don’t use dry sand. By adding water, the grains stick to each other, and your castle holds its shape. Same thing with sand transportation: Adding water reduces the sliding friction of any object moving over the sand. With the right amount of dampness, water droplets bind the sand grains together.
An international team led by Daniel Bonn from the University of Amsterdam tested the sliding friction of dry and wet sand by pulling a weighted sled across the surface in a tray. With dry sand, a heap would form in front of the sled, hindering its movement. And as they added water, both the force needed to pull the sled and the amount of friction decreased. As the water made the sand more rigid, the heaps got smaller and smaller until there was no obstacle forming in front of the moving sled.
Their experiments revealed that the required pulling force decreased proportional to the stiffness of the sand. When water was added, capillary bridges arose; these small water droplets act like glue to bind the sand grains together. With the right amount of water, wet desert sand is about twice as stiff as dry sand, allowing the sled to glide far more easily.
“I was very surprised by the amount the pulling force could be reduced -- by as much as 50 percent -- meaning that the Egyptians needed only half the men to pull over wet sand as compared to dry,” Bonn tells the Washington Post. Pictured here is the lab setup: A pile of sand accumulates in front of the sled when it's pulled over dry sand (left), but not with wet sand (right).
lab-setup.jpg
But just like with sandcastles, too much water isn’t good either. Water saturation is accompanied by a decrease in stiffness. With very high water contents, the capillary bridges (which used to act like a glue) start to merge and disappear, and the sliding friction increases again. It’s a delicate balance. "If you use dry sand, it won't work as well, but if the sand is too wet, it won't work either," Bonn tells LiveScience. "There's an optimum stiffness." The ideal amount of water falls between 2 and 5 percent of the volume of sand.
The answer had been staring us in the face for a long time. In a wall painting from the tomb of Djehutihotep (schematic above), you can see a worker pouring water on the sand in front of a sled that’s carrying a colossal statue. The sleds were little more than large wooden planks with upturned edges. “Egyptologists had been interpreting the water as part of a purification ritual," Bonn says, "and had never sought a scientific explanation.”
The work was published in Physical Review Letters last week.

Read more at http://www.iflscience.com/physics/mystery-how-egyptians-moved-pyramid-stones-solved#rOGgWzKThCLKTyWg.99

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Still doesn't explain how they cut every single block perfectly with rocks and a hammer and how they lined the pyramid perfectly with the equinox. These silly Egyptians didn't build those pyramids. They thought a God carried the Sun across the sky every day yet can build structures modern technology can't with the bare hands of slave workers. Mmmmhmmm.

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Still doesn't explain how they cut every single block perfectly with rocks and a hammer and how they lined the pyramid perfectly with the equinox. These silly Egyptians didn't build those pyramids. They thought a God carried the Sun across the sky every day yet can build structures modern technology can't with the bare hands of slave workers. Mmmmhmmm.

A classic example of "I don't know how it works, therefore no one does". I think the real mystery is how you get through airport security with that tinfoil hat on your head.

I guarantee you that we easily have the technology and ability to build pyramids. I humbly suggest you stop watching Ancient Aliens.

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Still doesn't explain how they cut every single block perfectly with rocks and a hammer and how they lined the pyramid perfectly with the equinox. These silly Egyptians didn't build those pyramids. They thought a God carried the Sun across the sky every day yet can build structures modern technology can't with the bare hands of slave workers. Mmmmhmmm.

The hell are you talking about? We could easily replicate the pyramids if we wanted to. Furthermore, what do their religious beliefs have to do with anything?

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See Graham Hancock's Quest for the Lost Civilization to see what I'm talking about. His theory is that the Egyptians simply just discovered the pyramids and drew in them. There are several unanswered questions past how they dragged the stones. It's a very interesting documentary and I'm not talking out of ignorance.

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I trust his opinion more than yours. I listened to an interview with within the last few years and his theory still stands. There's just too many inexplicable things involving the pyramids. Stones and hammer's don't make millions of identical blocks. Each and every one is perfect. My belief is that the Eqyptian civilization didn't build those pyramids. Yours isn't. Neither of us actually know. So don't act like you do.

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I trust his opinion more than yours. I listened to an interview with within the last few years and his theory still stands. There's just too many inexplicable things involving the pyramids. Stones and hammer's don't make millions of identical blocks. Each and every one is perfect. My belief is that the Eqyptian civilization didn't build those pyramids. Yours isn't. Neither of us actually know. So don't act like you do.

Millions of identical blocks? Each and every one is perfect? Seriously?

Either you've never visited the pyramids yourself or you had your eyes closed when you did. The blocks are neither identical nor perfect.

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Still doesn't explain how they cut every single block perfectly with rocks and a hammer and how they lined the pyramid perfectly with the equinox. These silly Egyptians didn't build those pyramids. They thought a God carried the Sun across the sky every day yet can build structures modern technology can't with the bare hands of slave workers. Mmmmhmmm.

This. I still don't get how the Egyptians aligned all pyarmids with the sun and all that crap. The math involved in it something else.

Imo I don't believe we could build those pyramids today. I just don't. You would think people would have made attempts to replicate those pyarmids by now...

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This. I still don't get how the Egyptians aligned all pyarmids with the sun and all that crap. The math involved in it something else.

Imo I don't believe we could build those pyramids today. I just don't. You would think people would have made attempts to replicate those pyarmids by now...

There was a NOVA program in the 90's that tried called "This old Pyramid". They didn't fully replicate all the technology, but a small gang was able to do it. Remember, it took years, decades of work to complete. The math is there.

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I trust his opinion more than yours. I listened to an interview with within the last few years and his theory still stands. There's just too many inexplicable things involving the pyramids. Stones and hammer's don't make millions of identical blocks. Each and every one is perfect. My belief is that the Eqyptian civilization didn't build those pyramids. Yours isn't. Neither of us actually know. So don't act like you do.

I don't know why I'm bothering to respond to this, but:

1) Graham Hancock is a journalist, not a scientist.

2) The blocks are not identical, and not perfect. In fact, there are numerous examples of earlier failed pyramids.

3) The math is impressive, but in no way beyond the means of the people at the time.

Your belief is based on a journalist who lives off of the books he sells.

My belief is that the pyramids were constructed by the Egyptians. My belief is backed by scientists, archaeologists, historians, and physical evidence.

For anyone who amazingly doesn't believe we can build the pyramids today, please read this: http://michaelsheiser.com/PaleoBabble/2012/07/build-great-pyramid-today/

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SN stop posting so much, you make me feel uneasy. first of all because i've been a top tier poster here for 10 years and you're yet to make me a mod, and second because when you're posting i know you're reading and if you're reading it means that i have to watch what i say

go away

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So you're citing a 16 year old documentary based on pseudo-science as your proof?

brother the pyrmids are like 200 yo. what difference does it make if the doc is 16? not a whole lot has changed in those 200 yrs.

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