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Deepfake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Deepfake (a portmanteau of "deep learning" and "fake"[1]) is a technique for human image synthesis based on artificial intelligence. It is used to combine and superimpose existing images and videos onto source images or videos using a machine learning technique known as generative adversarial network.[2] The phrase "deepfake" was coined in 2017.
 

Because of these capabilities, deepfakes have been used to create fake celebrity pornographic videos or revenge porn.[3] Deepfakes can also be used to create fake news and malicious hoaxes.[4][5]

 

 

History

The development of deepfakes has taken place to a large extent in two settings: research at academic institutions, and development by amateurs in online communities.

Academic research

Academic research related to deepfakes lies predominantly within the field of computer vision, a subfield of computer science often grounded in artificial intelligence that focuses on computer processing of digital images and videos. An early landmark project was the Video Rewrite program, published in 1997, which modified existing video footage of a person speaking to depict that person mouthing the words contained in a different audio track.[6] It was the first system to fully automate this kind of facial reanimation, and it did so using machine learning techniques to make connections between the sounds produced by a video’s subject and the shape of their face.

 

Contemporary academic projects have focused on creating more realistic videos and on making techniques simpler, faster, and more accessible. The “Synthesizing Obama” program, published in 2017, modifies video footage of former president Barack Obama to depict him mouthing the words contained in a separate audio track.[7] The project lists as a main research contribution its photorealistic technique for synthesizing mouth shapes from audio. The Face2Face program, published in 2016, modifies video footage of a person’s face to depict them mimicking the facial expressions of another person in real time.[8] The project lists as a main research contribution the first method for re-enacting facial expressions in real time using a camera that does not capture depth, making it possible for the technique to be performed using common consumer cameras.

 

Amateur development

The term deepfakes originated around the end of 2017 from a Reddit user named "deepfakes."[9] He, as well as others in the Reddit community r/deepfakes, shared deepfakes they created; many videos involved celebrities’ faces swapped onto the bodies of actresses in pornographic videos,[9] while non-pornographic content included many videos with actor Nicolas Cage’s face swapped into various movies.[10] In December 2017, Samantha Cole published an article about r/deepfakes in Vice that drew the first mainstream attention to deepfakes being shared in online communities.[11] Six weeks later, Cole wrote in a follow-up article about the large increase in AI-assisted fake pornography.[9] In February 2018, r/deepfakes was banned by Reddit for sharing involuntary pornography, and other websites have also banned the use of deepfakes for involuntary pornography, including the social media platform Twitter and the pornography site Pornhub.[12] Other online communities remain, however, including Reddit communities that do not share pornography, such as r/SFWdeepfakes (short for "safe for work deepfakes"), in which community members share deepfakes depicting celebrities, politicians, and others in non-pornographic scenarios.[13]Other online communities continue to share pornography on platforms that have not banned deepfake pornography.[12]

 

Pornography

Deepfake pornography surfaced on the Internet in 2017, particularly on Reddit,[14] and has been banned by sites including Reddit, Twitter, and Pornhub.[15][16][17] In autumn 2017, an anonymous Reddit user under the pseudonym "deepfakes" posted several porn videos on the Internet. The first one that captured attention was the Daisy Ridley deepfake. It was also one of the more known deepfake videos, and a prominent feature in several articles. Another one was a deepfake simulation of Gal Gadot having sex with her step-brother, while others were of celebrities like Emma Watson, Katy Perry, Taylor Swift or Scarlett Johansson. The scenes were not real, having been created with artificial intelligence. They were debunked a short time later.

 

As time went on, the Reddit community fixed many bugs in the faked videos, making it increasingly difficult to distinguish fake from true content. Non-pornographic photographs and videos of celebrities, which are readily available online, were used as training data for the software. The deepfake phenomenon was first reported in December 2017 in the technical and scientific section of the magazine Vice, leading to its widespread reporting in other media.[18][19]

 

Scarlett Johansson, a frequent subject of deepfake porn, spoke publicly about the subject to The Washington Post in December 2018. In a prepared statement, she expressed concern about the phenomenon, describing the internet as a "vast wormhole of darkness that eats itself." However, she also stated that she wouldn't attempt to remove any of her deepfakes, due to her belief that they don't affect her public image and that differing laws across countries and the nature of internet culture make any attempt to remove the deepfakes "a lost cause"; she believes that while celebrities like herself are protected by their fame, deepfakes pose a grave threat to women of lesser prominence who could have their reputations damaged by depiction in involuntary deepfake pornography or revenge porn.[20]

 

In the United Kingdom, producers of deepfake material can be prosecuted for harassment, but there are calls to make deepfake a specific crime;[21] in the United States, where charges as varied as identity theft, cyberstalking, and revenge porn have been pursued, the notion of a more comprehensive statute has also been discussed.[22]

 

In June 2019, a downloadable Windows and Linux application called DeepNude was released which used neural networks, specifically generative adversarial networks, to remove clothing from images of women. The app had both a paid and unpaid version, the paid version costing $50.[23]

 

Politics

Deepfakes have been used to misrepresent well-known politicians on video portals or chatrooms. For example, the face of the Argentine President Mauricio Macri was replaced by the face of Adolf Hitler, and Angela Merkel's face was replaced with Donald Trump's.[24][25] In April 2018, Jordan Peele and Jonah Peretti created a deepfake using Barack Obamaas a public service announcement about the danger of deepfakes.[26] In January 2019, Fox television affiliate KCPQ aired a deepfake of Trump during his Oval Office address, mocking his appearance and skin color.[27]

In May 2019, speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi was the subject of two viral videos, one of which had the speed slowed down to 75 percent,[28]and another which edited together parts of her speech at a news conference for the Fox News segment Lou Dobbs Tonight, both of which were intended to make Pelosi appear as though she was slurring her speech. President Donald Trump shared the latter video on Twitter, captioning the video "'PELOSI STAMMERS THROUGH NEWS CONFERENCE'".[29]These videos were referred to as deepfakes by many major news outlets, which brought deepfakes to the attention of the United States House Intelligence Committee; however, the chairman of the Committee, Adam Schiff, clarified in an interview with CNN that the slowed-down video was not actually a deepfake, instead referring to it as a "cheap fake" and describing it as "very easy to make, very simple to make, real content just doctored".[30]

 

Deepfake software

In January 2018, a desktop application called FakeApp was launched. The app allows users to easily create and share videos with faces swapped. The app uses an artificial neural network and the power of the graphics processor and three to four gigabytes of storage space to generate the fake video. For detailed information, the program needs a lot of visual material from the person to be inserted in order to learn which image aspects have to be exchanged, using the deep learning algorithm based on the video sequences and images.

 

The software uses the AI-Framework TensorFlow of Google, which among other things was already used for the program DeepDream. Celebrities are the main subjects of such fake videos, but other people also appear.[31][32][33] In August 2018, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley published a paper introducing a fake dancing app that can create the impression of masterful dancing ability using AI.[34][35]

 

There are also open-source alternatives to the original FakeApp program, like DeepFaceLab,[36] FaceSwap (currently hosted on GitHub)[37] and myFakeApp (currently hosted on Bitbucket).[38][39]

 

Criticisms

Abuses

The Aargauer Zeitung says that the manipulation of images and videos using artificial intelligence could become a dangerous mass phenomenon.[24] Arwa Mahdawi of The Guardian posited that much of the motivation behind deepfake pornography comes from the desire "to control and humiliate women".[40]

 

It is also possible to use deepfakes for targeted hoaxes and revenge porn.[41][42]

 

Effects on credibility and authenticity

An effect of deepfakes is that it can no longer be distinguished whether content is targeted (e.g. satire) or genuine. AI researcher Alex Champandard has said everyone should know how fast things can be corrupted today with this technology, and that the problem is not a technical one, but rather one to be solved by trust in information and journalism. The primary pitfall is that humanity could fall into an age in which it can no longer be determined whether a medium's content corresponds to the truth.[24]

 

Internet reaction

Some websites, such as Twitter and Gfycat, announced that they would delete deepfake content and block its publishers. Previously, the chat platform Discord blocked a chat channel with fake celebrity porn videos. The pornography website, Pornhub, also plans to block such content; however, it has been reported that the site has not been enforcing its ban.[43][44] At Reddit, the situation initially remained unclear until the subreddit was suspended on February 7, 2018, due to the policy violation of "involuntary pornography".[19][45][46][47] In September 2018, Google added "involuntary synthetic pornographic imagery” to its ban list, allowing anyone to request the block of results showing their fake nudes.[48]

 

Popular culture

Picaper by Jack Wodhams

The 1986 Mid-December issue of Analog magazine published Picaper by Jack Wodhams. Its plot revolves around digitally enhanced or digitally generated videos produced by skilled hackers serving unscrupulous lawyers and political figures. The main protagonist, a troubleshooter for the Systems Monitoring Department, comes across an unusually high-quality fake video.[49]

 

Jack Wodhams calls such fabricated videos picaper or mimepic — image animation based on "the information from the presented image, and copied through choices from an infinite number of variables that a program might supply".

For instance, someone gets a record of you walking and talking, your facial expressions. These impressions can be broken down to their individual matrix composites, can be analyzed, rearranged, and can then be extrapolated through known standard human behavioral patterns, so that an image of you may be re-projected doing and saying things that you have not in fact done or said.[49]

To Wodhams, pornography is not the major danger of this technology.

There is just a chance that this could be a matter of national interest. Something bigger than pornography or unlicensed alterations to copyrighted portrayals.[49]

In the story, interactive fake video is injected in a video conference call.

These days an actual gathering of a team around a table had become very much a rarity. It was so much simpler, and more convenient, to gather by vieway upon an exclusive circuit. Sessions could be as private and enclosed as any. No system was absolutely impenetrable, however. An opponent might easily sneak a doppelganger into a top-level conference. If accepted, such a known person could glean a great deal of information effortlessly and unnoticeably. Not just getting information out, but putting information in. A group of convincing surrogates could feed out opinions quite contrary to those held by their original twins. To sow drastic confusion. To achieve a dramatic coup.[49]

The sobering conclusion is that "the old idea that pictures do not lie is going to have to undergo drastic revision".

 

 

 

This stuff is unbelievable and getting crazier every day. Pretty soon, reality is going to be impossible to determine from unreality. The Matrix is here.

 

Post any that you find to be unbelievably well done, funny, or scary below.

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I watched a video last year about this. In the video they manipulated Obama's mouth and surrounding face and changed the words coming out.

I believe this technology could start a war.

 

Who is Bill Harder, alf?;

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Just now, lmm said:

I watched a video last year about this. In the video they manipulated Obama's mouth and surrounding face and changed the words coming out.

I believe this technology could start a war.

 

Who is Bill Harder, alf?;

There was an episode of 24 (maybe season 2?).... about how there's some technology was used to record voices and to replicate them to be indistinguishable from the original person.  Later on was used for mayhem.  

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That is the scariest thing in the world. What happens if someone gets killed and the video in the surveilance camera gets deepfaked by a hacker? On celebrities is one thing, they have the money and resources to fight it but ordinary people can end up getting thier lives completely destroyed. I hope someone combats this with maybe a video verification program to let people know if videos are fake or not.

Edited by smokes
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this is the cutting edge of fake news / fake reality

clearly could be extremely dangerous in the wrong hands

 

thank god the leaders of the world will ensure the public interests are looked after

good to know the leader of the free world is at the forefront in monitoring these developments

or it has potential to impact the validity of elections,

how competing political opponents might be perceived,

and who knows how else this technology might be used

 

personal integrity displayed by key global leaders provide all the comfort we desire

things are looking up

hard to not be optimistic

 

 

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On 7/9/2019 at 10:46 AM, lmm said:

I watched a video last year about this. In the video they manipulated Obama's mouth and surrounding face and changed the words coming out.

I believe this technology could start a war.

 

Who is Bill Harder, alf?;

I seen something very similar recently on the fifth estate or passionate eye iirc.

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On ‎7‎/‎10‎/‎2019 at 5:18 AM, coastal.view said:

this is the cutting edge of fake news / fake reality

clearly could be extremely dangerous in the wrong hands

 

thank god the leaders of the world will ensure the public interests are looked after

good to know the leader of the free world is at the forefront in monitoring these developments

or it has potential to impact the validity of elections,

how competing political opponents might be perceived,

and who knows how else this technology might be used

 

personal integrity displayed by key global leaders provide all the comfort we desire

things are looking up

hard to not be optimistic

 

 

This time

I understand your post

very well

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  • 2 weeks later...
On 7/9/2019 at 9:30 AM, Lancaster said:

People have been faking/forging photos and documents since those formats existed.

That was my defense when the prosecution provided documention of my alleged sexual encounters with vertically challenged individuals.  Video was entitled "Newbie goes wild...Spring Break edition!".:ph34r:

Edited by NewbieCanuckFan
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